Separation of Church and State Law

N4 p5 to Ge. 1.28. (A dispensation is a period of time during which man is tested in respect of obedience to some specific revelation of the will of God. Seven such dispensations are distinguished in Scripture. Cmt. on Ge 1:28, note 5.)

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

See Mcgee, Exodus, Volume II: pp. 172-175, 179-183 for the contrast between law and grace. “The children of Israel traveled from Egypt to Mt. Sinai by the grace of God. Then God asks them if they want to receive the law and commandments, and t hey foolishly agree to accept it instead of saying that they enjoyed the trip on eagles’ wings from Egypt to Mt. Sinai….” P. 207: Under law, to worship afar off; usder grace, near.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

Ex. 19 “8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the LORD hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the LORD.”

N1 to Ex. 19.8, p94 “ The Fifth  Dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from the Exodus to the Cross. The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law. The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the Cross. (Mans State at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4). (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts 2.22, 23), (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

“See, for the other dispensations: Innocence (Gen. 1.28); Conscience (Gen. 3.23); Human Government (Gen. 8.20); Promise (Gen. 12.1); Grace (John 1.17); Kingdom (Eph. 1.10).”

N1 to Ge. 20.4, p95. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 to Ex. 20.4, p95 “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:” (There is a threefold giving of the law. First, orally, in Ex 20:1-17. This was pure law, with no provision of priesthood and sacrifice for failure, and was accompanied by the “judgments” Ex 21:1-23:13 relating to the relations of Hebrew with Hebrew; to which were added Ex 23:14-19 directions for keeping three annual feasts, and Ex 23:20-33 instructions for the conquest of Canaan. These words Moses communicated to the people. Ex 24:3-8. Immediately, in the persons of their elders, they were admitted to the fellowship of God. Ex 24:9-11. Second, Moses was then called up to receive the tables of stone. Ex 24:12-18. The story then divides. Moses, in the mount, receives the gracious instructions concerning the tabernacle, priesthood, and sacrifice (Ex 25.-31.) Meantime (Ex 32.), the people, led by Aaron, break the first commandment. Moses, returning, breaks the tables “written with the finger of God.” Ex 31:18; 32:16-19. Third, the second tables were made by Moses, and the law again written by the hand of Jehovah Ex 34:1,28-29; De 10:4.)

  • The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.
  • The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.
  • The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.
  • The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.
  • The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.
  • The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 to Exodus 32.10, p113 “Now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great nation.” “This whole scene affords a striking contrast between law and grace. (Cf) Moses’ intercession with Christ’s Joh 17:1-26 Israel was a nation, under probation Ex 19:5-6 believers under grace are a family, awaiting glory Joh 20:17; Ro 5:1-2. For them there is “an advocate with the Father, whose propitiatory sacrifice never loses efficacy 1Jo 2:1-2. Moses pleads a covenant Ex 32:13. Christ points to a sacrifice Joh 17:4.

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
  • 2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

De. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: De. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p. 1000 to Mt. 5.17 “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” (Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.)

Mt. 27.51-56. (The dispensation of Law ends. See John 1.16, note; Heb. 9.3-8; 10, 19, 20.) Matthew 27:51-56  “51 And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; 52 And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, 53 And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many. 54 Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God. 55 And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him: 56 Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee’s children.

N3 to Mt. 27.51, p1042 “The veil which was rent was the veil which divided the holy place into which the priests entered from the holy of holies into which only the high priest might enter on the day of atonement, Cmt. on Ex 26:31 Le 16:1-30 The rending of that veil, which was a type of the human body of Christ Heb 10:20 signified that a “new and living way” was opened for all believers into the very presence of God with no other sacrifice or priesthood save Christ’s. (cf) Heb 9:1-8; 10:19-22. ”

N1 to Ro. 7:6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

Ro. 7.7-14. “14 For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.”

Ro. 7.15-25. The strife of the two natures under the law. Romans 7:15-25 “For that which I do I allow not: for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I.  If then I do that which I would not, I consent unto the law that it is good. Now then it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not. For the good that I would I do not: but the evil which I would not, that I do. Now if I do that I would not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me. For I delight in the law of God after the inward man: But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?  I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.”

N3 p1200 (6 “laws” distinguished in Romans);

  • Headnote to Galatians: “WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
    DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.”

Grace: N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews’ religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it:” (The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.)

Ga. 3.17-18 “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3.19-24 The ture intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline.

N1 p1244 to Ga. 3.19 “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.” [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25.  Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 p1244 to Ga. 3.24. “2 law Margin: to bring us Margin: unto 2 law

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”
  • Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.”
  • Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 3.25 Part V. The rule of eh believer’s life is gracious, not legal (Gal. 3.25-5.15)

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245 “Galatians 3:25  But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.” (Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.)

Ga. 3.26-29 (1) The justified believer is a son in the family of God, not a servant under the law.

Ga. 4.4-5 (2) The believer is redeemed from under the law.

Ga. 4.6-7 (3) The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Ep. 1.5, note.)

Ga. 4.8-14 (4) To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.19-31 (6) The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. “Galatians 4:22-26  For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman. But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise. Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar.  For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.  But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “Galatians 4:19  My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

 

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

 

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

 

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

 

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

 

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

 

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

 

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

 

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

 

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

 

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

 

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

 

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

 

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

 

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

 

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

 

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

 

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

 

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

 

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

 

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

 

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

 

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

 

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

 

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

 

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

 

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

 

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

 

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

 

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

 

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

 

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

 

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

 

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

 

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

 

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

 

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

 

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

 

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

 

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

 

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

 

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

 

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

 

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

 

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

 

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

 

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

 

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

 

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

 

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

 

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

 

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

 

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

 

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

 

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

 

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

 

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

 

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

 

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

 

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

 

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

 

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

 

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

 

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

 

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

 

The law, judgments, etc.

N1 p 1000 to Mt. 5.17: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” “Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4; (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23; (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8; (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26; (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14; (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7; (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.”

N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law; law vs. grace described.

N2,3,4 p93 (N2: “At Sinai Israel learned the lessons: (1) of the holiness of Jehovah through the commandments; (2) of their own sinfulness and weakness through failure; (3) and of the goodness of Jehovah through the provision of priesthood and sacrifice.  The Christian learns through the experience of Rom. 7.7-24 what Israel learned at Sinai.  This division of Exodus should be read in the light of Rom. 3. 19-26; 7.7-24; Gal. 4.1-3. Gal. 3.6-25 explains the relation of the law to the Abrahamic Covenant: (1) the law cannot disannul that covenant; (2) it was ‘added’ to convict of sin; (3) it was a child leader unto Christ; (4) it was but a preparatory discipline ‘till the Seed should come.’” N3: “It is exceedingly important to observe: (1) that Jehovah reminded the people that hitherto they had been the objects of His  free grace: (2) that the law is not proposed as a means of life, but as a means by which Israel might become ‘a peculiar treasure’ and a ‘kingdom of priests’; (3) that the law was not imposed until it had been proposed and voluntarily accepted. The principle is stated in Gal. 5.1-4.” N4: “Cf. 1 Pet. 2.9; Rev. 1.6; 5.10. What, under law, was condition, is under grace, freely given to every believer. The ‘if’ of v. 5 is the essence of law as a method of divine dealing, and the fundamental reason why ‘the law made nothing perfecdt’ (Rom. 8.3; Heb. 7.18, 19). The Abrhamic (Gen. 15.18, note) and New (Heb. 8.8-12, note) covenants minister salvation and assurance because they impose but one condition, faith.”

From Scofield Bible: What the law really is (Numbers 15.32-36 citing Rom. 3.19; 7.7-11; 2 Cor. 3, 7, 9; Gal. 3.10):

  • Numbers 15:32-36  “And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.”
  • Romans 3:19  Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
  • Romans 7:7-11  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.  But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.
  • 2 Corinthians 3:7  But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:
    2 Corinthians 3:9  For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
  • Galatians 3:10  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

Ex. 20 at 95-96: The 10 commandments.

N1 p95 to Ge. 20.4. “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming gthe Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the rithteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26;  the ‘judgments,; governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Coimmandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the hight priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).

N2 p95 (The threefold giving of the law).

The Law: the “judgements”: master and servant. Exo. 21.1-11.

The Law: the “judgments”: injuries to the person: Exo. 21.12-36.  Smiting a man; murder with guile (death); smiting father or mother, stealing a man and selling him or in his hand; cursing father or mother (death). Fighting, smiting a servant or his maid with a rod so that he die (punished); hurting a woman w/child so that child dies (punished as H determines or if mischief follows, then death), etc.

 

The Law: (2) the judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-31 thru 23.9.

 

The Law: the “judgements”: the land and the Sabbath. Exxo. 23.10-13.

 

The three national feasts. Exo. 23.14-19.

 

Law vs. grace. N1 p113.

 

De.4.1-11.32 gives a Restatement of the Law with Warnings and Exhortations.

 

Deut. 4 “5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, eve as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. 6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation Is a wise and understanding people 7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day? * * *.”

 

Witnesses: Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

 

Headnote to “Joshua”: * * * Law, of which Moses is the representative, could never give a sinful people victory (Heb. 7.19; Rom. 6.14; 8.2-4).

 

Ps. 19 “The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also that honey and the honeycomb. 11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.”

 

N1 p780 to Je. 7.22. Cf. Ex. 20.4 note 2, the threefold giving of the law. The command concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices was not given to the people till they had broken the Decalogue, the law of obedience.

 

N1 p1000 (Christ’s relationship to the law of Moses).

 

N1 p1169 to Acts 15.13 “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: 14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. 18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” “Dispensationally, this is the most important passage in the N.T. It gives the divine purpose for this age, and for the beginning of the next. (1) The taking out from among the Gentiles of a people for His name, the distinctive work of the present, or church-age. The church is the ecclesia–the “called-out assembly.” Precisely this has been in progress since Pentecost. The Gospel has never anywhere converted all, but everywhere has called out some. (2) “After this viz. the out-calling I will return.” James quotes from Am 9:11-12. The verses which follow in Amos describe the final regathering of Israel, which the other prophets invariably connect with the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant (e.g.) Isa 11:1,10-12; Jer 23:5-8. (3) “And will build again the tabernacle of David,” i.e. re-establish the Davidic rule over Israel 2Sa 7:8-17; Lu 1:31-33. (4) “That the residue of men Israelites may seek after the Lord” cf Zec 12:7; 13:1-2. (5) “And all the Gentiles,” etc. cf Mic 4:2; Zec 8:21-22. This is also the order of Ro 11:24-27.”

 

N1 to Ro. 7.6, p1199 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)

 

N2 to Ro. 7.9, p1199 “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.” (The passage (vs 7-25) is autobiographical. Paul’s religious experience was in three strongly marked phases: (1) He was a godly Jew under the law. That the passage does not refer to that period is clear from his own explicit statements elsewhere. At that time he held himself to be “blameless” as concerned the law Php 3:6. He had “lived in all good conscience” Ac 23:1. (2) With his conversion came new light upon the law itself. He now perceived it to be “spiritual” (Ro 7:14). He now saw that, so far from having kept it, he was condemned by it. He had supposed himself to be “alive,” but now the commandment really “came” (Ro 7:9) and he “died.” Just when the apostle passed through the experience of +B”>Ro 7:7-25 we are not told. Perhaps during the days of physical blindness at Damascus Ac 9:9, perhaps in Arabia Ga 1:17. It is the experience of a renewed man, under the law, and still ignorant of the delivering power of the Holy Spirit Ro 8:2. (3) With the great revelations afterward embodied in Galatians and Romans, the apostle’s experience entered it third phase. He now knew himself to be “dead to the law by the body of Christ,” and, in the power of the indwelling Spirit, “free from the law of sin and death” Ro 8:2 while “the righteousness of the law” was wrought in him (not by him) while he walked after the Spirit Ro 8:4, Romans 7. is the record of past conflicts and defeats experience as a renewed man under law. Margin: sin Sin. Cmt. on Ro 5:21.)

 

N3 p1200 to Ro. 7.21 “I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.” “Six ‘laws’ are to be distinguished in Romans: The law of Moses, which condemns Ro 3:19 ‘law’ as a principle Ro 3:21 the law of faith, which excludes self-righteousness Ro 3:27 the law of sin in the members, which is victorious over the law of the mind Ro 7:21,23,25 the law of the mind, which consents to the law of Moses but cannot do it because of the law of sin in the members Ro 7:16,23 and the ‘law of the Spirit,’ having power to deliver the believer from the law of sin which is in his members, and his conscience from condemnation by the Mosaic law. Moreover the Spirit works in the yielded believer the very righteousness which Moses’ law requires Ro 8:2,4.”

 

Headnote to Galatians:

  • WRITER. The Apostle Paul (1.1)
  • DATE. Galatians was probably written A.D. 60, during Paul’s third visit to Corinth, The occasion of the Epistle is evident. It had come to Paul’s knowledge that the fickle Galatians, who were not Greeks, but Gauls, “a stream from the torrent of barbarians which poured into Greece in the third century before Christ,” had become the prey of the legalizers, the Judaizing missionaries from Palestine.
  • THEME. The theme of Galatians is the vindication of the Gospel of the grace of God from any admixture of law-conditions, which qualify or destroy its character of pure grace.
  • The Galatian error had two forms, both of which are refuted. The first is the teaching that obedience to the law is mingled with faith as the ground of the sinner’s justification; the second, that the justified believer is made perfect by keeping the law. Paul meets the first form of the error by a demonstration that justification is through the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 15:18), and that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of that covenant, and the true purpose of which was condemnation, not justification, cannot disannul a salvation which rests upon the earlier covenant. Paul meets the second and more subtle form by vindicating the office of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
  • The book is in seven parts: I. Salutation 1.1-5 II. Theme, 1.6-9. III. Paul’s Gospel is a revelation, 1.10-2.14. IV. Justification is by faith without law, 2.15-3.24. V. The rule of the believer’s life is gracious, not legal, 3.25-5.15. VI. Sanctification is through the Spirit, not the law, 5.16-24. VII. Exhortations and conclusion, 5.25-6.18.

N1 p1241 to Ga. 1.6: “The test of the Gospel is grace. If the message excludes grace, or mingles law with grace as the means of either of justification or sanctification Ga 2:21; 3:1-3 or denies the fact or guilt of sin which alone gives grace its occasion and opportunity, it is “another” gospel, and the preacher of it is under the anathema of God Ga 1:8-9.”

N2 p1241 to Ga. 1.10 “The demonstration is as follows: (1) The Galatians know Paul, that he is no seeker after popularity Ga 1:10. (2) He puts his known character back of the assertion that his Gospel of grace was a revelation from God (Ga 1:11-12). (3) As for the Judaizers, Paul had been a foremost Jew, and had forsaken Judaism for something better (). (4) He had preached grace years before he saw any of the other apostles (Ga 1:15-24). (5) When he did meet the other apostles they had nothing to add to his revelations Ga 2:1-6. (6) The other apostles fully recognized Paul’s apostleship. Ga 2:7-10. (7) If the legalizers pleaded Peter’s authority, the answer was that he himself had claimed none when rebuked (Ga 2:11-14).”

N1 p1242 to Ga. 1.13: “The new dispensation of grace having come in, the Mosaic system, if still persisted in, becomes a mere “Jews’ religion.””

Ga. 3.1-5 The gift of the Spirit is by faith, not by law-works.

Ga. 3.6-9 The Abrahamic Covenant is a by-faith covenant. (Cf. Rom. 4.1-22.).

Ga. 3:10-12 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.”

Ga. 3:13-16 Christ has borne our law-curse that we might have the faith blessing. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.  Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”

Ga. 3:17-18 The law does not add a new condition to the Abrahamic covenant of faith. “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”

Ga. 3:19-23 The true intent of the law is condemnation, and as a preparatory discipline. “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Ga. 3:25 The rule of the believer’s life is gracious , not legal (Gal. 3.25-5-15). “But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”

N1 to Ga. 3.19, p1244 [& Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace)](purpose of the law) “The answer is sixfold: (1) The law was added because of transgressions, i.e. to give to sin the character of transgression. (a) Men had been sinning before Moses, but in the absence of law their sins were not put to their account. Ro 5:13. The law gave to sin the character of “transgression,” i.e. of personal guilt. (b) Also, since men not only continued to transgress after the law was given, but were provoked to transgress by the very law that forbade it Ro 7:8, the law conclusively proved the inveterate sinfulness of man’s nature Ro 7:11-13. (2) The law, therefore, “concluded all under sin” Ro 3:19-20,23. (3) The law was an ad interim dealing, “till the seed should come”. Ga 3:19. (4) The law shut sinful man up to faith as the only avenue of escape. Ga 3:23. (5) The law was to the Jews what the pedagogue was in a Greek household, a ruler of children in their minority, and it had this character “unto” i.e. until Christ Ga 3:24. (6) Christ having come, the believer is no longer under the pedagogue. Ga 3:25. Margin: because of for the sake, i.e. in order that sin might be made manifest as transgression. See, Ro 4:15; 5:20; ” 7:7,13.”

N2 to Gal. 3.24, p1244:

  • “I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
  • “II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9.”Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.

Ga. 4.4-5 The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

N1 to Ga. 3.25, p1245: Gr. paidagogos, “child-conductor.” “among the Greeks and Romans, persons, for the most part slaves, who had it in charge to educate and give constant attendance upon boys till they came of age.”–H.A.W. Meyer. The argument does not turn upon the extent or nature of the pedagogue’s authority, but upon the fact that it wholly ceased when the “child” Ga 4:1 became a Song 1:1; Ga 4:1-6 when the minor became an adult. The adult “son” does voluntarily that which formerly he did in fear of the pedagogue. But even if he does not, it is no longer a question between the son and the pedagogue (the law), but between the son and his Father–God. (Cf) Heb 12:5-10; 1Jo 2:1-2.

Gal. 4.4-5: The believer is redeemed from under the law. “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”

Ga. 4.6-7: The Spirit actualizes the believer’s sonship (See Eph. 1.5, note.)And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Ga. 4.8-14. To lapse into legality is to go back to an elementary religion.

Ga. 4.15-18. In legality the Galatians have lost their blessing.

Ga. 4.19-31. The two systems, law and grace cannot co-exist. Gal. 4:29-31:  “But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

N1 p1246 to Ga. 4.19 “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,” “The allegory Ga 4:22-31 is addressed to justified but immature believers (cf) 1Co 3:1-2 who, under the influence of legalistic teachers, “desire to be under the law,” and has, therefore, no application to a sinner seeking justification. It raises and answers, for the fifth time in this Epistle, the question, Is the believer under the law? Ga 2:19-21; 3:1-3,25; 4:4-6,9-31.”

Ga. 4.19-31. “… 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”

Law, the: Gal. 5.13 “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.”

Ga. 5.19-31 The two systems, law and grace, cannot co-exist (the son of he bondwoman and the son of the freewoman, Sarah, are an allegory, etc. Application of the allegory in Gal. 5.)

I Ti. 1.6-11: “6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm. 8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; 11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.”

 


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