Separation of Church and State Law

Biblical Principles Concerning Government

2 Samuel 23:2-4  The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue. The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.  And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.

        N1 p1089 to Lk. 11.1  “And it came to pass, that, as he was praying in a certain place, when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples.” (“This is the central NT passage on prayer.  In the Sermon on the Mount Christ had announced the new basis of prayer, viz.: relationship (Mt. 6.9, 28-32).  The believer is a child of God through the new birth (John 3.3, note).  The clear revelation of this fact at once establishes the reasonableness of prayer; a reasonableness against which the argument from the apparent uniformity of natural law shatters itself.  God is more than a Creator, bringing a universe into being, and establishing laws for it; more than a decree-maker determining future events by an eternal fiat.  Above all this is the divine family for whom the universe with its laws exists (Col. 1.16-20; Heb. 1.2; 2.10, 11; Rom. 8.17): “When ye pray, say Our Father.”  What God habitually does in the material universe concerns the reverent investigator of that universe.  What He may do in His own family concerns Him, and them, and is matter for divine promise and revelation.  Science, which deals only with natural phenomena, cannot intrude there (Cor. 2.9).

“Christ’s law of prayer may be thus summarized: (1) He grounds prayer upon relationship, and reveals God as freely charging himself with all the responsibilities, as His heart glows with all the affections of a Father toward all who believe on Jesus Christ Mt 6:25; 7:9-11. Prayer, therefore, is a child’s petition to an all-wise, all-loving, and all-powerful, Father-God. (2) In the so-called Lord’s prayer Christ gives an incomparable model for all prayer. It teaches that right prayer begins with worship; puts the interest of the kingdom before merely personal interest; accepts beforehand the Father’s will, whether to grant or withhold; and petitions for present need, leaving the future to the Father’s care and love. Used as a form, the Lord’s prayer is, dispensationally, upon legal, not church ground; it is not a prayer in the name of Christ (cf) Joh 14:13; 16:24 and it makes human forgiveness, as under the law it must, the condition of divine forgiveness; an order which grace exactly reverses (cf) Eph 4:32. (3) Prayer is to be definite Lu 11:5-6 and, (4) importunate, that is undiscouraged by delayed answers.)

Psalms 117 “O praise the LORD, all ye nations: praise him, all ye people. For his merciful kindness is great toward us: and the truth of the LORD endureth for ever. Praise ye the LORD.”

Je. 9:25-26 “Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will punish all them which are circumcised with the uncircumcised;  Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that are in the utmost corners, that dwell in the wilderness: for all these nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart.”

N1 p16 (See also N2 p976 which deals with Kingdom in OT, Summary). The third dispensation: Human Government.  Under Conscience, as in Innocency, man utterly failed, and the judgment of the Flood marks the end of the second dispensation and the beginning of the third.  The declaration of the Noahic Covenant subjects humanity to a new test.  Its distinctive feature is the institution, for the first time, of human government—the government of man by man.  The highest function of government is the judicial taking of life.  All other governmental powers are implied in that.  It follows that the third dispensation is distinctively that of human government.  Man is responsible to govern the world for God.  That responsibility rested upon the whole race, Jew and Gentile, until the failure of Israel under the Palestinian Covenant (Deut. 28.-30.1-10) brought the judgment of the Captivities, when “the times of the Gentiles” (See Lk. 21.24; Rev. 16.14) began, and the government of the world passed exclusively into Gentile hands (Dan. 2.36-45; Lk. 21.24; Acts 15.14-17). That both Israel and the Gentiles have governed for self, not God is sadly apparent.  The judgment of the confusion of tongues ended the racial testing; that of the captivities the Jewish; while the Gentile testing will end in the smiting of the Image (Dan. 2.) and the judgment of the nations (Mt. 25.31-46).  See, for the other six dispensations: Innocence (Gen. 1.28); Conscience (Gen. 3.23); Promise (Gen. 12.1); Law (Ex. 19.8); Grace (John 1.17); Kingdom (Eph. 1.10).

“John Witherspoon believed that God ordained government, but that God had also limited the authority and function of government.  Government which exceeds its authority and becomes tyrannical must be resisted.” Christianity and the Constitution, Eidsmo at 90.

A dispensation is a period of time during which man is tested in respect of obedience ot some specific revelation of the will of God.  Seven such dispensations are distinguished in Scripture. N1, 5 p5.

Ge. 10 “32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.”

De. 32.7-9 (In the song of Moses prior to his death) “Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations: ask thy father, and he will shew thee; thy elders, and they will tell thee.  When the most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. For the LORD’S portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance.”

N1 p19 to Gen 11.10 (Genesis 11 & 12 mark an important turning point in the divine dealing. Heretofore the history has been that of the whole Adamic race. Thare has been neither Jew nor Gentile; all have bee one in ‘the first man Adam.’ Henceforth, in the Scripture record, humanity must be thought of as a vast stream from which God, in the call of Abram and the creation of the nation of Israel, has but drawn off a slender rill, through which He may at last purify the great river itself. Israel was called to be a witness to the unity of God in the midst of universal idolatry (Deut. 6.4; Isa. 43.10-12); to illustrate the blessedness of serving the true God (Deut. 33.26-29); to receive and preserve the divine revelations (Rom. 3.1,2; Deut. 4.5-8); and to produce the Messiah (Gen. 3.15; 21.3; 28.10-14; 49.10; 2 Sam. 7.16, 17; Isa. 4.3, 4; Mt. 1.1.

“The reader of scripture should hold firmly in mind: (1) that from Gen. 12. to Mt. 12.45 the Scriptures have primarily in view Israel, the little rill, not the great Gentile river, though again and again the universality of the ultimate divine intent breaks into view (e.g. Gen. 12.3; Isa. 2.2, 4; 5.26, 9.1, 2; 11.10-12; 42.1-6; 49.6, 12; 52.15; 54.3; 55.5; 60.3, 5, 11-16; 61.6, 9; 62.2; 66.12, 18, 19; Jer. 16.19; Joel 3, 9, 10; Mal. 1.11; Rom. 9., 10., 11.; Gal. 3.8-14); (2) that the human race, henceforth called Gentile in distinction from Israel, goes on under the Adamic and Noahic covenants; and that for the race (outside Israel) the dispensations of Conscience and Human Government continue. The moral history of the great Gentile world is told in Rom. 1.21-32, and its moral accountability in Rom. 2.1-16.  Conscience never acquits: it either “accuses” or “excuses.”  Where the law is known to the Gentiles it is to them, as to Israel, “a ministration  of death, “ a “curse” (Rom. 3.19.20; 7.9, 10; 2 Cor. 3.7; Gal. 3.10). A wholly new responsibility arises when either Jew or Gentile knows the Gospel (John 3.18, 19, 36; 15.22-24; 16.9; John 5.9-12)..

N2 clauses (1), (2) p23 to Gen. 14.18. (1) * * * “The Most High divided to the nations [i.e., Gentiles] their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, * * *” (Deut. 32.8) [Deuteronomy 32:8  “When the most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel.”]. As ‘possessor of heaven and earth’ it was the prerogative of the Most High to distribute the earth among the nations according to whatever principle He chose.  That principle is declared in Deut. 32.8. To the same purport is the use of the name in Daniel, the book of Gentile prophecy (Dan. 3.26; 4.17, 24, 25, 32, 34, 35; 5.18, 21).

(2) As ‘possessor of heaven and earth,’ the most high God has and exercises authority in both spheres. (A) The heavenly authority of El Elyon (e.g., Dan. 4.35, 37; Isa. 14.13, 14: Mt. 28.18); (b) the earthly authority of El Elyon (e.g. Deut. 32.8; Psa. 9.2-5; 21.7; 47.2-4; 56.2, 3; 82.6, 8; 83.6, 7, 16-18; 91.9-12; 2. Sam. 22.14, 15; Dan.5.18). See, for other names of Deity: Gen. 1.1, note; 2.4, note; 2.7; 15.2, note; 17.;1, note; 21.33, note; 1 Sam. 1.3, note.

De. 10:14  Behold, the heaven and the heaven of heavens is the LORD’S thy God, the earth also, with all that therein is.

N2 p976 “Kingdom in O.T. Summary.

  1. The Dominion of man over the earth before the call of Abraham.

(1)   Dominion over creation was given to the first man and woman (Gen. 1.26, 28). Through the fall this dominion was lost, Satan becoming ‘prince of this world’ (Mt. 4.8-10; John 14.30).

(2)   After the flood, the principle of human government was established under the covenant with Noah (Gen. 9.1, note). Biblically this is still the charter of all Gentile government.

II. The Theocracy in Israel. The call of Abraham involved, with much else, the creation of a distinctive people through whom great purposes of God toward the race might be worked out (see ‘Israel’ Gen. 12.1-3; Rom. 11.26, summary). Among these purposes is the establishment of a universal kingdom. The order of the development of the Divine rule in Israel is:

(1)   The mediatorship of Moses (Ex. 3.1-10; 19.9; 24.12).

(2)   The leadership of Joshua (Josh. 1.1-5).

(3)   The institution of Judges (Jud. 2.16-18).

(4)   The popular rejection of the Theocracy, and choice of a king—Saul (1 Sam. 8.1-7; 9.12-17).

  1. The Davidic Kingdom.

(1)   The divine choice of David (1 Sam. 16.1-13).

(2)   The giving of the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam. 7.8-16; Psa. 89.3, 4, 20, 21, 28-37).

(3)   The exposition of the Davidic Covenant by the prophets (Isa. 1.25, 26 to Zech. 12.6-8. See marg. Isa. 1.26, ‘Kingdom’ and refs.). The kingdom as described by the prophets is:

(a)    Daavidic, to be established under an heir of David, who is to be born of a virgin, therefore truly man, but also ‘Immanuel,’ ‘the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of peace’ (Isa. 7.13, 14; 9.6, 7; 11.1; Jer. 23.5; Ezk. 34.23; 37.24; Hos. 3.4, 5).

(b)   A kingdom heavenly in origin, principle, and authority (Dan. 2.34, 35, 44, 45), but set up on the earth, with Jerusalem as the capital (Isa. 2.2-4; 4.3, 5; 24.23; 33.20; 62.1-7; Jer. 23.5; Joel 3.1, 16, 17).

(c)    The kingdom is to be established first over regathered, restored, and converted Israel, and is then to become universal (Psa. 2.6-8; 24.; 22.; Isa. 1.2, 3; 11.1, 10-13; 60.12; Jer. 23.5-8; 30.7-11; Ezk. 20.33-40; 37.21-25; Zech. 9.10; 14.16-19).

(d)   The moral characteristics of the kingdom are to be righteousness and peace. The meek, not the proud, will inherit the earth; longevity will be greatly increased; the knowledge of the LORD will be universal; beast ferocity will be removed; absolute equity will be enforced; and outbreaking sin visited with instant judgment; while the enormous majorityh of earth’s inhabitants will be saved (Isa. 11.4, 6-9; 65.20; Psa. 2.9; Isa. 26.9; Zech. 14.16-21). The N.T. (Rev. 20.1-5) adds a detail of immense significance—the removal of Satan from the scene. It is impossible to conceive to what heights of spiritual, intellectual, and physical perfection humanity will attain in this, its coming age of righteousness and peace (Isa. 11.4-9; Psa. 72.1-10).

(e)    The kingdom is to be established by power, not persuasion, and is to follow divine judgment ujpon the Gentile world-powers (Psa. 2.4-9; Isa. 9.7; Dan. 2.35, 44, 45; 7.26, 27; Zech. 14.1-19). See Zech. 11.11, note 3.

(f)    The restoration of Israel and the establishment of the kingdom are connected with an advent of the Lord, yet future (Deut. 30.3-5; Psa. 2.1-9; Zech. 14.4).

(g)    The chastisement reserved for disobedience in the house of David (2 Sam. 7.14; Psa. 89.30-33) fell in the captivities and world-wide dispersion, since which time, though a remnant returned under prince Zerubbabel, Jerusalem has been under the overlordship of Gentiles. But the Davidic Covenant has not been abrogated (Psa. 89.33-37), but is yet to be fulfilled (Acts 15.14-17).

Psm. 24 “1 The earth is the LORD’S, and the fullness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein. . . .”

THE HISTORICAL BOOKS. P 257: “The Historical Books of the OT, usually so called, are 12 in number, from Joshua to Esther inclusive. * * * The Story of the Historical Books is the story of the rise and fall of the commonwealth of Israel, while the prophets foretell the future restoration and glory of that people under King Messiah. * * *.”

Deut. 4.20-40. “. . . 34 Or hath God assayed to go and take him a nation from the midst of another nation, by temptations, by signs, and by wonders, and by war, and by mighty hand, and by a stretched out arm, and by great terrors, according to all that the LORD your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes? 35 Unto thee it was shewed, that thou mightest know that the LORD he is God; there is none else beside him. . . .”

King (leader): Deut. 17.14-20: [God’s guidelines for a king of Israel: must be an Israelite, not to multiply horses, not cause his people to return to Egypt to multiply horses, not to multiply wives, not to multiply silver & gold, to read the Word all the days of his life that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of the law and the statutes and to do them, that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, that he turn not aside from the commandment.]

Deut. 32.7-8:  “Remember the days of old * * * [w]hen the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel.”

Deut. 32.28-29: “For they are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any understanding in them.  O that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end!”

“‘And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation.’ Acts 17.26. However, it is only when the entire verse is read that God’s original plan for restricted international migration becomes apparent—“and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation.The immediate context of Acts 17.26 goes on to show that the divine purpose for “determining boundaries” was so that men would ‘seek the Lord.’ Acts 17.27a). The Creator of all mankind was well aware of the fact that the more lost sinners ‘come together,’ the more emboldened they become to reject their need of a divine Saviour.  As the stiff-necked descendants of Noah turned to a tower of astrology at Babel (Genesis 11.1-9), America’s current infatuation with the Psychic Friends Network is indicative of a growing one-world mindset. (See Dr. G.A. Riplinger’s New Age Versions for documentation on the ‘one’ in New Age doctrine.). Incidentally, this is why God’s natural aquatic impediment to migration, covering 75% of the planet’s surface, will no longer be needed on the sin-purged New Earth: ‘and there was no more sea.’ (Revelation 21.1c).” Dr. William P. Grady, What Hath God Wrought? at 290.

        Even though there was to be separation of church and state, the state was still under God, and there was to be a cooperation between priest and ruler (church and state now).

        Deut. 19.15-21: Two witnesses required. False witnesses to stand before the priests and the judges who will diligently inquire to suffer the same penalty as the one falsely testified against.

Deut. 20. Priests to approach and speak to the people in time of war.

Over and over again, esp. in Deut., the people are told to follow God’s law. E.g., Deut. 12 “1 These are the statutes and judgments, which ye shall observe to do in the land, which the LORD God of thy fathers giveth thee to possess it, all the days that ye live upon the earth. * * *.”  God laws covered everything, including idolatry.  The Ten Commandments exemplified the law.

They brought their captives, prey, spoil unto Moses and Eleazar the priest and the congregation of the children of Israel. Num. 31.12.

The nation was to observe the religious holidays.

The nation told not to add to or take from God’s commandments & keep His commandments. Deut. 4.1-49.

Told the nation to get rid of all monuments to other gods. Deut. 12.1.  Don’t serve other gods. Deut. 6.14; 12.30-31; 13.1-18.

Judges & officers to judge justly, to take no gifts. Deut 16.18-20.

David’s charge to Solomon: walk in the ways of the Lord, etc. 1 Ki. 2.3-; 1 Ki. 6.11-13.

When the people preferred Absolom, Absolom became king. 2 Sam. 15, 16.

God tells Jeroboam he’ll give him 10 tribes bc of Solomon’s sin & that he’ll bless him if he keeps His statutes. 1 Ki. 11.26-40.

Solomon, the leader of Israel, built a temple (1 Ki. 6), preaches a sermon (1 Ki. 8), gives a blessing (1 Ki. 8).  God appears a 2nd time to Solomon (1 Ki. 9) & tells him if he’ll keep his statutes & judgments (1 Ki. 9). . . . Solomon’s offerings to the Lord (1 Ki. 9.25).

Lev. 24.22: “There is one lawgiver . . . .” James 4.12.  One law for the stranger as well as for he of your own country.

The official presentation of Jesus as King (Zech. 9.9; Mt. 21.1-77; Mk. 11.1-11; Lk. 19.29-38). N1 p1028 to Mt. 21.4 (The King’s final and official offer of Himself according to Zech. 9.9.  Acclaimed by so unthinking multitude whose real belief is expressed in verse 11—“This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee”)—but with no welcome from the official representatives of the nation, He was soon to hear the multitude shout: “Crucify Him.”)

        N1 p1029  to [Mt. 21 “43 Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof.”] “Note that Matthew here as in verse 31 uses the larger word, kingdom of God. (Cf. Mt.6.33, note.) The kingdom of heaven (Mt. 3.2, note 1 Cor. 14.24, summary) will yet be set up.  Meantime the kingdom of God and His righteousness is taken from Israel nationally and given to the Gentiles (Rom. 9.30-33).

Pro. 28.5 men understand not judgment: but they that seek the

LORD understand all things.”

Psm. 113.3: “The LORD is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens.

Pro. 8.15-16: “By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. By me princes

rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth.

“Isa. 40  “15 Behold, the nations are as a drop of a bucket, and art counted as the small dust of the balance: behold, he taketh up the isles as a very little thing.  * * * `17 All nations before him are as nothing; and they are counted to him less than  nothing, and vanity. * * *.  22 It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in: 23 That bringeth the princes to nothing; he maketh the judges of the earth as vanity. 24 Yea, they shall not be planted; yea, they shall not be sown: yea, their stock shall not take root in the earth: and he shall also blow upon them, and they shall wither, and the whirlwind shall take them away as stubble. * * *. 26 Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number: he calleth them all by names by the greatness of his might, for that he is strong in power; not one faileth. ** *.”

Jer. 10.12-13: “He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom,

and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion.  When he uttereth his voice,

there is a multitude of waters in the heavens, and he causeth the vapours to ascend

from the ends of the earth; he maketh lighenings with rain, and bringeth forth the

wind out of his treasures.”

“For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our lawgiver,

the LORD is our king; he will save us.” Isa. 33.22.

The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul:

the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.

the statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart:

the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes.

The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever:

the judgmentsof the LORD are true and righteous altogether.

More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold:

sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.

Moreover by them is thy servant warned:

and in keeping of them there is great reward.  Psm. 19.7-9.

               Amos 4.6-13: God reminds Israel of all His judgments against them and in spited of those judgments, “yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.”  God says, “Prepare to meet thy God, O Israel.” V12.  The same can be said of America today.

“They hate him that rebuketh in the gate, and they abhor him

that speaketh uprightly.” Amos 5.10.  “Therefore the prudent shall keep

silence in that time; for it is an evil time”. Amos 5.13.

God wanted Amos to tell Israel exactly what he was about to do.

They rejected his message.  In fact, they didn’t even want to hear

him preach.  They rebelled at the message and the messenger.

“The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God.” Psm. 9.17

Psm. 11.3: “If the foundations be destroyed, what can the righteous do?” [For one thing, we can go back to God’s blueprint found in His word and rebuild the foundations being destroyed under our watch.  This is what Nehemiah did when he found Jerusalem with its walls knocked down, gates burned, and God’s people vexed by this deplorable condition.  He assigned workers that handled both trowel and weapon to go to the exposed areas and rebuild the walls and gates that had been decimated, which made them a prey to their enemy.]

Psm. 113 “4 The LORD is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens.

Pro. 29 “2 When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice:

but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn.”

Psm. 33 “8 Let all the earth fear the LORD: let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him. 12 Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD; and the people whom

he hath chosen for his own inheritance. 16 There is no king saved by the multitude of an host: a mighty man is not delivered by much strength.” [See the whole chapter].

“And the LORD saith, Because they have forsaken my law which

I set before them, and have not obeyed my voice, neither walked

therein; But have walked after the imagination of their

own heart, and after Baalim, which their  fathers taught them:

Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel;

Behold, I will feed them even this people, with wormwood, and give

them water of gall to drink. * * * .” Jere. 9.13

Je. 9:25-26 “Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will punish all them which are circumcised with the uncircumcised;  Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that are in the utmost corners, that dwell in the wilderness: for all these nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart.”

Je. 10:6-8  “Forasmuch as there is none like unto thee, O LORD; thou art great, and thy name is great in might. Who would not fear thee, O King of nations? for to thee doth it appertain: forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their kingdoms, there is none like unto thee.  But they are altogether brutish and foolish: the stock is a doctrine of vanities.”

And the LORD God of their fathers sent to them by his messengers,

rising up betimes, and sending; because he had compassion on his

people, and on his dwelling place: But they mocked the messengers of

God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets, until the

wrath of the LORD arose against his people, til there was no remedy.

2 Chr. 36.15-16.

“Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s;

and unto God the things that are God’s.

Mr. 22.15-22; Mk. 12.13-17; Lk. 20.20-26.

“And now they sin more and more, and have made them molten

images of silver * * *.” Hosea 13.2

        Governeur Morris spent a lot of time in France.  He deplored the immorality of the French people. Eidsmo, Christianity and the Constitution, 186. He viewed the French Revolution as a monstrosity, built on a false foundation and therefore doomed to tragic failure. Ibid. While he believed the nature of government must vary according to the character of its people, he also spoke about the absolute principles of the law of nature and the law of nations. Ibid. 1t 187.  A system of government that would work for a highly religious and moral people (as Morris thought the Americans to be) would not work in an immoral society like France. Ibid. And because principles vary from country to country Morris believed that, “The true object of a great statesman is to give to any particular nation the kind of laws which is suitable to them, and the best constitution which they are capable of.” Ibid.

Morris stated, in his notes suggesting a constitution for France, that religion plays a major role in educating people for self-government:

“Religion is the only solid basis of good morals; therefore education should teach the precepts of religion, and the duties of man toward God.

“These duties are, internally, love and adoration; externally, devotion and obedience; therefore provision should be made for maintaining divine worship as well as education.

“But each one has a right to entire liberty as to religious opinions, for religion is the relation between God and man; therefore it is not within the reach of human authority.”

Ibid. at 188 citing Morris, “Notes on the form of a Constitution for France,” uncertain date; reprinted by Sparks, Life of Morris, III:483.

The Constitution

               Benjamin Franklin once declared, “Let me add that only a virtuous people are capable of freedom.  As nations become corrupt and vicious, they have more need of masters.” Eidsmo, Christianity and the Contitution, p211 quoting Franklin, 1789; quoted by Smyth, Writings, X50; Quoted by Allison et al., The Real Benjamin Franklin, p393.

Habakkuk raises and answers the question of God’s consistency with Himself in view of permitted evil.  The prophet thought that the holiness of God forbade him to go on with evil Israel.

N1 p959. “[In Zephaniah] the approaching invasion of Nebuchadnezzar is treated as an adumbration of the true day of the LORD in which all earth-judgments will culminate, to be followed by the restoration and blessing of Israel and the nations in the kingdom.  See “Day of the LORD” (Isa. 2.10-22; Rev. 19.11-21); “Israel” (Gen. 12.2,3; Rom. 11.26). Cf. Joel 1. 2.

        “For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our lawgiver, the LORD is our king; he will save us.” Isa. 34.22.  He punishes the kings, princes, priests, prophets, inhabitants of Israel & Judah bc of their sins. Jere. 32.32-35.

The  sins of the priests, the princes, the prophets, the people. Eze. 22.23-31.

        “The heads thereof judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach for hire, and the prophets thereof divine  for money.” Micah 3.11a. See also Micah 7.1-6 (The good man is perished . . . . the prince asketh, and the judge asketh for a reward; ;and the great man, he uttereth his mischievous desire. . . .The best of them is as a brier . . . .”

The tribute money (“Render unto Caesar * * *): Mk. 12.13-17; Mt. 22.15-22; Lk. 20.19-26; Mt. 17.24-27.

        Josh. 23.6-16: Multiculturism:  Be ye therefore very courageous to keep and do all that is written in the book of the law of Moses, that ye turn not aside therefrom to the right hand or to the left; That ye come not among these nations, these that remain among you; neither make mention of the name of their gods, nor cause to swear by them, neither serve them, nor bow yourselves unto them; but cleave unto the LORD your God . . . .  [Don’t intermarry w/them.] [Consequences given]. ”

Among the sins for which Israel was carried into captivity: “and went after the heathen that were round about them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them, that they should not do like them.” See 2 Ki. 17 (this is from v15)(the U.S.S.Ct. is using foregn precedent in its opinions—sodomy opinion and others).

Jer. 16.11-13: “Because your fathers have forsaken me, * * * and have walked after other gods, and have served them, and have worshipped them, and have forsaken me, and have not kept my law; 12 And ye have done worse than your fathers: for, behold, ye walk every one after the imagination of his evil heart, that they may not hearken unto me: 13 Therefore will I cast you out of this land into a land that ye know not, neither ye nor your fathers; and there shall ye serve other gods day and night; where I will not shew you favor.”

The sin of Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron was in acting in the things of God without seeking the mind of God.  It was “will worship” (Col. 2.23), which often has a “show of wisdom and humility.”  It typifies any use of carnal means to kindle the fire of devotion and praise.  See N1 p138 to Leviticus 10.1.

Every nation is on probation.

        (N1 p113. The scene that happened while Moses was on the mount where the children of Israel broke the law, made a golden calf, etc. affords a striking contrast between law and grace.  Cr. Moses’s intercession with Christ’s (John 17).  Israel was a nation, under probation (Ex. 19.5,6); believers under grace are a family awaiting glory (John 20.17; Rom. 5.1, 2). For them there is “an advocate with the Father,’’ whose propitiatory sacrifice never loses efficacy (1 John 2.1, 2).  Moses pleads a covenant (Ex. 32.13); Christ points to a sacrifice (John 17.4)). See N1 p1056 (The probation of Bethsaida as a community was ended, but He would still show mercy to individuals, etc. See also Lk. 10.;1-24: Jesus denounces judgment on the cities.)

“And it shall be, if thou do at all forget the LORD thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day that ye shall surely perish.  As the nations which the LORD destroyed before your face, so shall ye perish; because ye would not be obedient unto the voice of the LORD your God.” Deut. 8.19-20.

“Not for thy righteousness, or for the uprightness of thine heart, dost thou go to possess their land: but for the wickedness of these nations the LORD thy God doth drive them out from before thee, and that he may perform the word which the LORD sware unto thy fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Understand therefore, that the LORD thy God giveth thee not this good land to possess it for thy righteousness; for thou art a stiffnecked people.” Deut. 9.5-6.

Leviticus 18 tells us what wickedness the nations had done and for which God was driving them from the land.  “(For all these abominations have the men of the land done, which were before you, and the land is defiled;)” Leviticus 18.27.  Those abominations in Levi. 18 were all sexual.

“Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing?  The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder and case their cords from us. He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the LORD shall have them in derision. Etc.” Psm. 2. N1 p600 (The 2nd Psalm gives the order of the establishment of the kingdom. Etc.).

Deut. 6.14-15, 7.3-4, 25-26; “[I]f thou . . . walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day that ye shall surely perish. As the nations which the LORD destroyeth before your face . . . .” Deut. 8.19-20. Deut. 11.16-17.

               The heaven, even the heavens, are the LORD’S: but the earth hath he given to the children of men. Psm. 115.16.

N1 p1036 to Mt. 25.32. The Lord her judges the living nations.

Leviticus 20 deals with crimes & punishments: sexual sins and punishment (e.g. sodomy to by punished by death, etc.); every one that curses father or mother to be put do death; those that turn after familiar spirits and after wizards to be cut off from God’s people; any one who gives his seed unto Molech to be stoned; a man or woman that hath a familiar spirit or is a wizard to be stoned; etc.

He that blasphemeth the name of the LORD to be put to death by the whole congregation stoning him.  Leviticus 24.16.  He that killeth any man to be put to death. V17.

The rapid decline of the first civilization seen in Gen. 4.16-24. N2 p11.  “And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.” Gen. 6.5.  “And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt: for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.  And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.” Gen. 6.12-13.  [T]he LORD said in his heart * * * for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth * * *.” Gen. 8.21.

        Law, the: N3 p91 (Amalek, grandson of Esau, a type of the flesh.  The resources of man under law); N2,3,4 p93;

        N1 p94 (dispensation of law.  This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the Cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the Cross.  (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4).  (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts 2.22, 23).  (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25. 1-11; Lk. 21.20-24.)); N1 p1244 (purpose of the law); N2 p1244 (summary of the Law of Moses); N1 p1245; Gal. 4.4-7; N1 p1246; N2 p 1244 & Ro. 6.14 (Law v. grace).

The law: (2) the “judgments”; master & servant Exo. 21.1-11.

The law: (2) the “judgments”; injuries to the person. Exo. 21.12-36.

The law: (2) the “judgments”; rights of property. Exo. 22.1-15.

The law: (2) the “judgments”; crimes against humanity. Exo. 22.16-23.9.

        The law: (2) the “judgments”; the land & the Sabbath. Exo. 23.10-13.

        The 6 laws in Romans: N3 p1200.

No one to be convicted by testimony of one witness; false witness to be done to as the one he testified against, etc. Deut. 19.15-21.

        Conditional promises: Exo. 15 “26 And said, If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians: for I am  the LORD that healeth thee.”

Exo. 19 “5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine: ;6 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel. * * * 8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the LORD hath spoken we will do. * * *.;”

Exo 24.3,7 and Deut. 5.27: then ye shall be . . . a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation; ([the people] said, All the words which the L D ORhath said will we do and be obedient.”).

Exo. 34.18-35.3: The Lord tells Moses who tells the people that he will cast out the nations before thee and enlarge their borders if . . . .

(Do the judgments, keep God’s ordinances to walk therein, Keep God’s statutes & judgments, etc. See, e.g. Lev. 20.22-3. for the consequences to the nation if this is not done.  Lev. 18.3-20.27.).

        Conditions of blessing; warnings of chastisement: Lev. 26 (Read in conjunction with Deu. 28-30, the Palestinian Covenant).

Deut. 4-11-: Keep the statutes & judgments for this is your wisdom & your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statues & say , Surely this great nation is a wise & understanding people.  For what nation is so great, . . . .”  And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.” 4.7, 11.19.

Deut. 4.34-40: “Or hath God assayed to go and take him a nation from the midst of another nation, by temptations, by signs, and by wonders, and by war, and by a mighty hand, and by a stretched out arm, and by great terrors, according to all that the LORD your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes? Unto thee it was shewed, that thou mightest know that the LORD he is God; there is not else beside him. * * *.”

Deut. 5.32-33: “Ye shall observe to do therefore as the LORD your God hath commanded you: ye shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left. Ye whall walk in all the ways which the LORD your god hath commanded you, that ye may live, and that it may be well with you, and that ye may prolong your days in the land which ye shall possess.”

Deut. 6.3: “Hear therefore, O Israel, and observe to do it; that it may be well with thee, and that ye may increase mightily, and the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee, in the land that floweth with milk and honey.”

[The LORD drives the nations out before thee because of their wickedness.] Deut. 9.5.

See also Deut. 12.30-31 (Thou shalt not do as the nations in the land I give you.). Deut. 18.9-14 gives the abominations for which the Lord drove the inhabitants from the land.

        They are to utterly destroy the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perrizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; as the LORD commanded that they teach them not all their abominations, which they have done unto their gods * * *. Deut. 20. 17-18.

The last counsels of Joshua. Joshua 23 (Joshua tells the Israelites before his death that if they obey God and turn not to the right hand or to the left that God will drive the inhabitants of the land given them.  If not * * *.).

God to set Israel high above all nations if Israel observes and does all his commandments. Deut. 28. 1-14. God to bring curses upon the nation if they do not observe & do his commandments. Deut. 28.15-68.

1 Sam. 7.1-8.  Samuel tells the children of Israel, to return to the LORD w/all their hearts, put away the strange gods, prepare their hearts, & serve Him only.  The people did so.  As a result, the Philistines were subdued, the cities which they had taken were restored to Israel, & the LORD was against the Philistines all the days of Samuel. vv 9-14.

Samuel tells the people he is old & grayheaded—asks the people what evil he has done to them (taken ox or ass, defrauded, oppressed, received any bribe, etc.). They say he has done none of these.  1 Sam. 12. 1-4.  Samuel gives a brief recount of their history.  Tells them they did evil in demanding a king. VV6-14.  Even though they have a king, he says that if they will fear the LORD, serve him, obey his voice, not rebel against the commandment of the LORD, then both they & their king will continue following the LORD. V14.  If not, & if they will not obey the voice of the LORD, but rebel against the commandment of the LORD, the hand of the LORD will be against them. V15.

To Solomon: 1 Ki. 6.12-13; 9.1-9; II Chron. 9.1-9 (Solomon was blessed with extreme riches by God); 2 Chr. 7.12-22 (Notice the promises for keeping God’s statutes & commandments & the consequences for not doing so.  Notice esp. that God is concerned that the nation shall not go & serve other gods, worship them). “If my people which are called by my name, shall humble themselves and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.” 2 Chr. 7.14 (see the promises for obedience vs. the promises for disobedience in this chapter.)

See 1 Ki. 11 for Solomon’s disobedience and God’s judgment.

To Asa. 2 Chron. 15.1-7.

Nehemiah 1.5-11.

The government, under Moses and Joshua was theocratic.  Joshua succeeded Moses as the ruler under God.  See Joshua 1 ([A]s I was with Moses, so I will be with thee: I will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.” Joshua 1.5b).

Deut. 31.14-23 (God warns Moses of the apostasy of Israel).

        Hezekiah. Notice that Hezekiah, the king, made many religious reforms.2. Ki. 18.1-20.21; 2 Chr. 29.1-32.33.  He did this as king, including removing all the idols, etc.  “[A]nd in every work that he began in the service of the house of God, in in the law, and in the commandments, to seek his God, he did it with all his heart, and prospered.” 2 Chr. 31.21.

“And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power.  Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, For above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: and hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church, which is his body, and the fullness of him that filleth all in all.” Eph. 1.19-22.

Ac. 14:15-16  “And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein: Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.”

        N2 p1342 to Rev. 13.8: Revelation tells us the end of an earth that has chosen Satan and not the Lord.  “Kosmos  refers to the present world-system, the ethically bad sense of the word, refers to the “order,” “arrangement,” under which Satan has organized the world of unbelieving mankind upon his cosmic principles of force, greed, selfishness, ambition, and pleasure (Mt. 4.8, 9; John 12.31; 14.30; 18.36; Eph. 2.2; 6.12; 1 John 2.15-17).  This world-system is imposing and powerful with armies and fleets; is often outwardly religious, scientific, cultured, and elegant; but, seething with national and commercial rivalries and ambitions, is upheld in any real crisis only by armed force, and is dominated by Satanic principles.?

N1 p1346 to Rev. 18.1: Babylon, “confusion,” is repeatedly used by the prophets in a symbolic sense (see Isa. 13.1, note).  Two “Babylons” are to be distinguished in the Revelation: ecclesiastical Babylon, which is apostate Christendom, headed up under the Papacy: and political Babylon, which is the Beast’s confederated empire, the last form of Gentile world-dominion.  Ecclesiastical Babylon is “the great whore” (Rev. 17.1), and is destroyed by political Babylon (Rev. 17.15-18), that the beast may be the alone object of worship (2 Thes. 2.3,4; Rev. 13.15).  The power of political Babylon is destroyed by the return of the Lord in glory.  (See “Armageddon,” Rev. 16.14; 19.17)  The notion of a literal Babylon to be rebuilt on the site of ancient Babylon is in conflict with Isa. 13.19-22.  But the language of Rev. 18 (e.g. vs. 10, 16, 18) seems beyond question to identify “Babylon,” the “city” of luxury and traffic, with “Babylon” the ecclesiastical centre, viz. Rome.  The very kings who hate ecclesiastical Babylon deplore the destruction of commercial Babylon.

*******N2 p976 gives the OT summary of the Kingdom (Govt. summarized).********

N2 p1026 to Mt. 19.28 (Disclosing how the promise (Isa. 1.26 will be fulfilled when the kingdom is set up.  The kingdom will be administered over Israel through the apostles, according to the ancient theocratic judgeship (Jud. 2.18).

        Divine view of the national sinfulness and  apostasy of Israel. Eze. 8-33.21.

The wicked shall be turned into hell and all nations that forget God. Psm.9.17.

Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people. Pro. 14.34.

If the foundations be destroyed, what can the righteous do? Ps. 11.3.

A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them. Pro. 20.26.

Mercy and truth preserve the king: and his throne is upholden by mercy. Pro. 20.28.

“Take away the wicked from before the king, and his throne shall be established in righteousness.” Pro. 25.5.

“When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice: but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn.” Pro. 29.2.

“But thou [Jeremiah] shalt say unto them, This is a nation that obeyeth not the voice of the LORD their God, nor receiveth correction: truth is perished, and is cut off from their mouth.” Jere. 7.28 and following. [In America today, preachers are cowed, afraid to proclaim that the catastrophes happening to America are the result of America’s sin—the judgment of God on America for her sins.]

Abortion: Psm. 106.37-8 (“Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils, And shed innocent blood, eveI the blood of their sons and of their daughters, whom they sacrificed unot the idols of Canaan: and the land was polluted with blood.” [see following verses for the consequences]).

        Prophets: Prophets were men raised up of God in times of declension and apostasy in Israel.  “They were primarily revivalists and patriots, speaking on behalf of God to the heart and conscience of the nation.” Scofield Bible, p 711.

The steps in the downfall of a nation: religious apostasy, moral awfulness, political anarchy.  “The priests said not, Where is the LORD? and they that handle the law knew me not: the pastors also transgressed against me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal, and walked after things that do not profit. . . . Hath a nation changed their gods, which are yet no gods? But my people have changed their glory for that which doth not profit. . . . For my people have committed two evils; they have forsaken me the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that  can hold no water.” Jer. 2.8, 11, 13, read on for the development of this and also see the moral awfulness, etc.  “The prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests bear rule by their means; and  my people love to have it so: and what  will ye do in the end thereof?” Jere. 5.31.

N1 p94. “The fifth dispensation: Law. This dispensation extends from Sinai to Calvary—from Exodus to the cross.  The history of Israel in the wilderness and in the land is one long record of the violation of the law.  The testing of the nation by law ended in the judgment of the Captivities, but the dispensation itself ended at the cross. (1) Man’s state at the beginning (Ex. 19.1-4. (2) His responsibility (Ex. 19.5, 6; Rom. 10.5). (3) His failure (2 Ki. 17.7-17, 19; Acts. 2.22, 23). (4) The judgment (2 Ki. 17.1-6, 20; 25.1-11; Lk. 21.20-24).

The government of the Jews under Moses and Joshua was theocratic.  “’The heavenly’ of Ephesians is to the Christian what Canaan was to the Israelite—a place of conflict, and therefore not a type of heaven, but also a place of victory and blessing through divine power (Josh. 21.43-45; Eph. 1.3.).”

McGee, Judges:

“The book of Judges is a philosophy of history. ‘Righteousness exalteth a nation: but sin is a reproach to any people.’” Proverbs 14.34.  Judges records the history of the nation from the death of Joshua until Samuel, the last of the Judges and the first of the prophets.There was no leader to take Joshua’s place the way he had taken Moses’ place.  This was the trial period of the theocracy after they entered the land. See pp112-13 for the cycle of history shown in Judges.

“The book of Isaiah opens with God giving this philosophy of history.  Isaiah outlines three steps that cause the downfall of nations: (1) spiritual apostasy, (2) moral awfulness, and (3) political anarchy, which is the final stage of any nation. [General McArthur’s words]. P113.”

The key verse to the book of Judges is”Every man did that which was right in his own eyes.” Intro. Notes to Judges in Scofield Bible.

The Israelites “served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, who had seen all the great works of the LORD, that he did for Israel.” Judges 2.7. Then “there arose another generation after them, which knew not the LORD, nor yet the works which he had done for Israel.” Judges 2.10. “And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim: And they forsook the LORD God of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods of the people that were round about them, and bowed themselves unto the, and provoked the LORD to anger.” Judges 2.11-12 See the result in the verses immediately following—the LORD delivered them into the hands of spoilers.  Then the LORD raised up judges to deliver them.  See N2 p289 (Not one of the chosen judges in the book of Judges had anything whereof to glory in the flesh.  Othniel was but the son of the younger brother of Caleb; Ehud was a lefthanded man and an assassin; Shamgar, a rustic with an ox-goad;  Deborah, a woman; Gideon of the obscure  family in the smallest tribe, etc.  Each of the classes mentioned in 1 Cor. 1.27, 28 is illustrated among the judges.)

The first indication that the children of Israel wanted a king to rule over them was in Judges 8.22.  God did not want them to have a king.  But bc Gideon had delivered them from bondage, they wanted him to be king.  Later they ask again for a king.  God wanted to rule over his people.  God had used Gideon so remarkably, but it is Gideon who Israel wants to rule over them.  Gideon turned them down.  [A]ny man or woman that God uses has to be used on God’s terms.  And He chooses the weak things of this world.” McGee, Judges, p162-3.

This up and down business we see in the book of Judges is the story of nations, churches, and individuals. McGee, Judges, 165.

“Every nation goes down in this order: (1) religious apostasy; (2) moral awfulness; (3) political anarchy.  Deterioration begins in the temple, then to the home, and finally to the state.  That is the way a nation falls.” McGee, Judges,  203.

“Then the men of Israel said unto Gideon, Rule thou over us, both thou, and thy son, and thy son’s son also: for thou hast delivered us from the hand of Midian.  And Gideon said unto them, I will not rule over you, neither shall my son rule over you: the LORD shall rule over you.” Judges 8.22-23.

In Judges 9.6 all the men of Shechem make Abimelech king.

1 Sam. presents the personal history of Samuel, last of the Judges.  It records the moral failure of the priesthood under Eli, and of the Judges in Samuel’s attempt to make the office hereditary (1 Sam. 8.1).  In his prophetic office Samuel was faithful, and in him begins the line of writing prophets.  Henceforth, the prophet, not the priest, is conspicuous in Israel.  The theocracy, as exercised through judges, ends in 1 Samuel, & the line of kings begins with Saul.

Eli says to his sons whose dealings with the people were evil, “If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him: but if a man sin against the LORD, who shall intreat him?  Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto the voice of their father, because the LORD would slay them.” 1 Sam.2.25.

“[T]he word of the Lord was precious in those days; there was no open vision. 1 Sam. 3.1.  But in 1 Sam. 3, God speaks to Samuel making Samuel his prophet-priest and telling Samuel that he would perform against Eli the priest all he had spoken in 1 Sam.2.27-36 (both Eli’s sons to die & God will raise up a faithful priest).  At Eli’s insistence, Samuel told this to Eli.  In 1 Sam. 4, the Philistines battle with Israel, slaughter 30,000 Israelites, takes the ark of the covenant, kill Eli’s 2 sons, Hophni & Phinehas, Eli falls from his horse & breaks his neck upon hearing of this, & Ichabod was born to Phineahas’ wife.

God brings calamity on the Philistines because they have the ark of God. 1 Sam. 5.  The ark brought to Joshua the Beth-shemite in 1 Sam.6.  The ark brought to the house of Abinadab in 1 Sam. 7 where it stays 20 yrs.

“And Samuel spake unto all the house of Israel, saying, If ye do return unto the LORD with all your hearts, then put away the strange gods and Ashtaroth from among you, and prepare your hearts unto the LORD, and serve him only: and he will deliver you out of the hand of the Philistines.  Then the children of Israel did put away Baalim and Ashtaroth, and served the LORD only.” 1 Sam. 7.3-4.  Israel defeats the Philistines. 7.9-14.

Samuel, prophet, priest, & judge. 1 Sam. 7.15-17.

Samuel’s sons, Joel & Abiah, who Samuel made judges, walked not in Samuel’s ways but turned aside for filthy lucre, and took bribes, and perverted judgment.  Sam. 8.1-2.  They reject God to reign over them. Id. Israel demands a king like all the nations. 1 Sam.8.4-6.  The people refused to listen to Samuel who told they all the words of the LORD concerning what the king would do who reigned over them; and they nonetheless rejected the theocracy and insisted upon a king like the other nations. 1 Sam. 8.7-22.  Samuel warns them what a king will do, but they demand a king anywary. Id.

In Deut. 17.14-20, God told the children of Israel before they went into the land how to choose a king when they requested one and gave rules for that king—not to multiply horses or wives, to have a copy of the law, to read it that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them: That his heart be not  lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment * * *.

Saul chosen to be king. 1 Sam.9.1-27 (“. . . Saul . ., . said Am not I a Benjamite, of eh smallest of the tribes of Israel? And my family the least of the families of the tribe of Benjamin? Wherefore then speakest thou so to me?”V21).

See 1 Chr. 10.13-14 to see Saul’s overthrow & death & his sin for which he lost the kingdom.

Saul anointed to be king. 1 Sam. 10.  The spirit of the LORD came upon him, he prophesied, & was turned into another man. V6.  God said to Israel, “You have rejected your God, who himself saved you out of all your adversities & your tribulations, and demanded a king.” V19.

Immediately after he was anointed, the children of Belial despised Saul and brought him no presents. V27.

Things looked good at first.  Israel, under Saul, defeats the Ammonites. 1 Sam. 11.  The people want to kill those who spoke against Saul, but Samuel says no. VV12-13.  They make Saul king before the LORD in Gilgal. V15.

Samuel tells the people he is old & grayheaded—asks the people what evil he has done to them (taken ox or ass, defrauded, oppressed, received any bribe, etc.). They say he has done none of these.  1 Sam. 12. 1-4.  Samuel gives a brief recount of their history.  Tells them they did evil in demanding a king. VV6-14.  Even though they have a king, he says that if they will fear the LORD, serve him, obey his voice, not rebel against the commandment of the LORD, then both they & their king will continue following the LORD. V14.  If not, & if tey will not obey the voice of the LORD, but rebel against the commandment of the LORD, the hand of the LORD will be against them. V15. “But if ye shall do wickedly, ye shall be consumed, both ye and your king.” V25.

The true character of Saul almost immediately begins to emerge.  1 Sam. 13.  His son Jonathan gets victory over a garrison of Philistines.  Saul takes credit for it. VV1-7.  Saul intrudes into the office of the priest. 8-10.  As a result, God  rejected Saul. 11-23.

Notice that almost as soon as Saul becomes king, things head south for Israel.  God has to meat out the consequences of the evil of Israel.  The Philistines disarmed the Israelites so that in the day of battle, the Israelites had no weapons. 17-23.

Jonathan has a great victory over the Philistines, but Saul takes the credit for it and reveals his jealousy. Saul wrongly takes the ark of God into battle, probably thinking it will give the victory. V18.  God gives him victory in spite of that. V23.  1 Sam. 14. Jonathan unknowingly goes against his father’s commandment not to eat after Saul & his army smote the Philistines.  Saul finds out & orders him to be killed, but the people rescue Jonathan.  God is not using Saul at all. V37. “And there was sore war against the Philistines all the days of Saul: and when Saul saw any strong man or any valiant man, he took him unto him.” V52.

God tells Saul to “smite Amalek, to destroy all they have, and spare them not; but slay both man & woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel & ass.” 1 Sam. 15.3.  Saul & the people spared Agag, the king, the best of the sheep, oxen, fatlings, lambs and all that was good. 9.  Saul lies & says he did God’s will.  13.  Samuel calls his lie. 14.  Saul blames the people. 15.  He lies more;  claims they kept the animals to sacrifice to the LORD. 20-21.  Samuel says, “[T]o obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams.  For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry.  Because thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, he hath also rejected thee from being king.” 22-3.  Saul says he feared the people & obeyed their voice. 1 Sam. 15.24.  Instead of statesmen today who have their feet on the solid rock, we have politicians who listen to the polls.

Saul’s overthrow & death. 1 Sam. 31.1-6; 1 Chr. 10.1-10. The kindness of Jabesh-gilead toward Saul & his sons. 1 Sam. 31.11-13; 1 Chr. 10.11-12.

The sins for which Saul lost the kingdom-his transgressions against the LORD, against the word of the LORD, which he kept not, & for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit & not of the LORD. 1 Chr. 10.13-14.

David (see also 1 Chr. 11-29) chosen by the LORD to be king (The LORD said not to look on the countenance or the heighth of his stature because “The LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart. 7). 1 Sam.16.1-11.  David anointed king, and the spirit of the LORD came upon him from that day. 12-13.  The spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit troubled him. 14. David called to play the harp when evil spirit troubles Saul. 15-23.  See N1 p336 for order of events concerning how David came to be Saul’s armourbearer.

Goliath, the Philistine giant, challenged Israel. 1 Sam. 17.  David goes to the battlefield to take food to his brothers.  David says, “[W]ho is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?” 26. “Is there not a cause?” 29.  “The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine.” 37.  “Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied . . . . [F]or the battle is the LORD’S, and he will give you into our hands. . . .” 45-47.

Saul becomes jealous of David & fears him (Saul hath slain his thousands and David his ten thousands.”) 1 Sam. 18.  Tries to kill David twice. 11.  All Israel & Judah love David as David behaved himself wisely in all his ways.  Saul asks David to bring a hundred foreskins of Philistines for Saul’s daughter thinking to have him killed.  David brought 200.  Saul bc David’s enemy continually. 29.  He knew the Lord had left him & was w/David. 12, 28.

Saul continues to try to kill David. 1 Sam. 19. Johathan & Michael help David.  Jonathan protects David. 1 Sam. 20.  David flees to Ahimelech and to Achish. 1 Sam. 21.  David in rejection gathers his mighty men. 1 Sam. 22.  David’s wanderings, dangers, and adventures. 1 Sam. 22.3-23.  Saul orders the murder of Ahimelech the priest and a total of 85 persons that wore the linen ephod.  22.11-20.  David’s mercy to Saul in Engedi. 1 Sam. 24.

1 Sam. 25.1: Samuel dies.

David & Nabal. 1 Sam. 25.2-38.

Abigail becomes David’s wife. 1 Sam. 25.39-42.  Ahinoam becomes David’s wife. 43-4.

David spares Saul the 2nd time. 1 Sam. 26.

David’s lapse of faith—he goes to Philistia. 1 Sam. 27.  David among Israel’s enemies.  1 Sam. 28.  In 1 Sam. 29, David is saved from fighting against Israel.

In 1 Sam. 28, Saul goes to the witch of En-dor bc the Lord answered him not, by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets (See v. 6).

David avenges the destruction of Ziglag. 1 Sam. 30.

The Philistines slay Jonathan, Abinidab, and Melchi-Shua, Saul’s sons. 1 Sam. 31.2.  They wound Saul :& Saul kills himself by falling on his sword. 3-4.  1 Chron. 10.1-12 tells of Saul’s overthrow and death.  1 Chron. 10.13-14 gives the reason Saul died.

2 Sam. Marks the restoration of order through the enthroning of God’s king, David; records the establishment of Israel’s political centre in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5.6-12) and her religious centre in Zion (2 Sam. 5.7; 6.1-17). See also 1 Chr. 13.1-29.30 for the accession of David to his death.  When all was thus ordered, Jehovah established the great Davidic Covenant (7.8-17) out of which all kingdom truth is henceforth developed.  David, in his “last words” (23.1-7) describes the millennial kingdom yet to be.

When David returns to Judah, to Hebron, he at first reigns only over Judah from Hebron, for 7 years and 6 months. 2 Sam. 2. Ish-bosheath, the son of Saul reigns over Israel. 2 Sam. 2.8-11.  Civil war. V12-32.  Long war between house of Saul and house of David. 3.1.  David waxes stonger & stronger & Saul’s house weaker & weaker. Id. David’s family in Hebron. 3.2-6. Abner deserts Ish-bosheat and joins David.  7-26.  Joab murders Abner. 27-39.  The sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, Rechab and Baanah, slay Ish-bosheath in his bed & take his head to David. 4.5-12.  David kills them for this. 11-12. David becomes king over Israel. 2 Sam. 5.1-5; 1 Chron. 11.1-3.Jerusalem made the capital of the united kingdom. 5.6-12; I Chr. 11.4-9.  Children of David born in Jerusalem, one of whom was Solomon. 13-16; Cf. 2 Sam. 3.2-5; 1 Chr. 3.1-4.  War w/the Philistines. 17; 1 Chr. 14.8-17.  David smites the Philistines. 18-25; 2 Sam. 23.13-17; 1 Chr. 11.15-19; 12.8-15.

David seeks to bring the the ark to Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 6.1-11.  David brings up the ark (he dances before the Lord all night and Michal, his wife, belittles him for it.  As a result, she had no child). 2 Sam. 6.12-23; 1 Chr. 15.25-29; 16.1.

N1 p361 to 2 Sam. 6.3; see also 1 Chr. 13.1-14: “Blessing does not follow even the best intentions in the service of God except as that service is rendered in God’s way. It is a constant point of failure.  God had given explicit directions how the ark should be borne (Num. 4.1-15), but David adopted a Philistine expedient (1 Sam. 6.7,8).  The church is full of Philistine ways of doing service to Christ. Cf. 1 Cor. 1.17-31; 2 Cor. 10.4, 5. See, also, 1 Chr. 15.2.”

David’s desire to build the LORD’S house. 2 Sam. 7.1-3; 1 Chron. 17.1-3..

The seventh or Davidic Covenant. 2 Sam. 7.4-17; 1 Chron. 17.4-15. See N2 p362. David’s worship & praise (2 Sam. 7.18-29; 1 Chr. 17.16-27).

The full establishment of David’s kingdom (2 Sam. 8.1-18 & 1 Chr. 18.1-17).

David & Mephibosheth. 2 Sam. 9.

The Ammonite-S  yrian war (2 Sam. 10; 1 Chr. 19.1-19).

David’s great sin. 2 Sam. 11.  David’s repentance. 2 Sam. 12.1-23.

2 Sam. 12: The consequences of David’s sin.  “The sword shall never depart from thine house; because thou hast despised me, and hast  taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be thy wife. . . . Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thine own house, and I will take thy wives  before thine eyes, and give them unto thy neighbor, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun..  For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing before all Israel, and before the sun.” 10-12.  “Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast given great occasion to the enemies of the LORD to blaspheme, the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die.” 14.

The birth of Solomon to David & Bathsheba. 2 Sam. 12.24-25.

David & Joab take Rabbah. 2 Sam. 12.26-31.

Amnon’s crime against his half sister, Absalom’s vengeance and flight. 2 Sam. 13.

The recall of Absalon and David’s half-hearted forgiveness. 2 Sam. 14.1-20.

Absalom stills the love of the ten tribes (“Israel”), rebels, David flees; David sends Hushai to be a spy in Absolom’s court. 2 Sam. 15.

The false servant of Mephibosheth, Shimei curses David,, Absalom enters Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 16.  Hushai tells Absalom he will serve him. 2 Sam. 16.15-23. The diverse counsel of Ahithophel & Hushai. 2 Sam. 17.

Battle of Mount Ephraim and the slaying of Absalom. 2 Sam. 18.

2 Sam. 24: David’s sin in numbering the people (1 Chron. 21.1-6).

Joab reproaches David. 2 Sam. 19.1-8. David returns to Jerusalem. 9-40. The old strife begins anew between Israel & Judah. 41-43; 20.1-3.

Joab murders Amasa. 2 Sam. 4-12.  Suppression of Sheba’s revolt. 13-26.

Three years famine because of Saul’s slaying of the Gibeonites. @ Sam. 21.1-14.

A war with the Philistines. 2 Sam. 21.15-22.

David’s song of deliverance. 2 Sam. 22.  David’s last words. 23.1-7. David’s mighty men. 8-29; Cf. 1 Chr. 11.10-47.

David’s sin in numbering the people. 2 Sam. 24.1-9; 1 Chr. 21.1-6.  David’s choice of punishment. 2 Sam. 24.10-17; 1 Chr. 21.7-17 (Notice that the people of the nation suffer because of the sin of the king.).

David buys Ornan’s threshingfloor; erects an altar. 2 Sam. 24.18-25; 1 Chr. 21.28-30. David prepares materials for building the temple. 1 Chr. 22.1-5. Instructs Solomon in God’s promises, and his duty in building the temple (God doesn’t allow David to build the temple bc he has shed much bloo, made great wars. v8; 28.3). 22.6-16. The princes are charged to assist Solomon. 17-19.  David makes Solomon king. 23.1. David’s solemn assembly gives counsel to Israel & to Solomon. 1 Chr. 28.1-10. Patterns for the form, and gold & silver for the materials. 11-19. David encourages Solomon to build the temple. 20-21.

David exhorts the people concerning the building of the temple. 1 Chr. 29.1-5. The princes & people offer willingly. 6-9. David’s thanksgiving and prayer. 10-19. The people, having blessed God & sacrificed, make Solomon king. 20-22. Accession of Solomon. 23-25 and 1 Ki. 2.12. Reign & death of David. 26-30.

1 Ki. Records the death of David, the reign of Solomon (1 Ki. 1-1), the building of the temple, death of Solomon, division of the kingdom under Rehoboam and Jeroboam, and the history of the two kingdoms to the reign of Jehoram over Judah, and Ahaziah over Samaria.  Includes the mighty ministry of Elijah.

Solomon anointed king. 1 Ki. 1.39-40; 1 Chr. 29.22.

Solomon established in the kingdom. 2 Chr. 1.1. Solomon sacrifices at Gibeon. 1 Ki. 3.4; 2 Chr. 1.2-6. The people and Solomon sacrifice in high places bc no house built unto the Lord. 1 Ki. 3.1-4. N1 p389 speaks of sacrificing in high places.  Solomon’s vision of God, and prayer for wisdom. 1 Ki. 3.5-15; 2 Chr. 1.7-17.  Solomon prepares to build the temple. 1 Ki. 5.1-12; 2 Chr. 2. Solomon begins to build the temple (1 Ki. 6.1, note; 2 Chr. 3.1-2. Dimensions & materials of the temple. 1 Ki. 6.2-7.51; 2 Chr. 3.3-4.22.

The ark brought in; the glory fills the temple. 1 Ki. 8.1-11; 2 Chr. 5.1-14.  The sermon of Solomon. 1 Ki. 8.12-21; 2 Chr. 6.1-11.  Solomon’s prayer of dedication. 1 Ki. 8.22-53; 2 Chr. 6.12-42.  The divine acceptance. 2 Chr. 7.1-3.  Sacrifice & rejoicing. 1 Ki. 8.62-66.  Jehovah appears to Solomon. 1 Ki. 9.1-9; 2 Chr. 7.12-22.

After Solomon finishes building the temple, God appears to him a second time.  God tells him that if he will walk before him as David did, in integrity of heart, and in uprightness, to do according to all that God had commanded, and keep his statutes & judgments, that he will * * *.  But if he will not, [God tells the consequences]. 1 Ki. 9.;1-9 and 2 Chr. 7.12-22. “If my people which are called by my name, shall humble themselves and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.” 2 Chr. 7.14.

Solomon’s heart turned away from Jehovah and the consequences. 1 Ki. 10. Solomon established in his kingdom, sacrifices at Gibeon, builds the temple, the ark brought in, his sermon, prayer of dedication, etc. 2 Chr. 1.-9.  Notice that the nation builds the temple under the direction of Solomon, that Solomon give the prayer of dedication (2 Chr. 6.12-42)(Notice that Solomon anticipates that the people will sin, that judgment will follow.  He asks the LORD to forgive them and take away the judgment if they pray, confess His name, turn from their sin.  Solomon names several types of judgments.)

The energy & fame of Solomon. 1. Ki. 9.10-28; 2 Chr. 8. 1-18.

Solomon & the queen of Sheba. 1 Ki. 10.1-13; 2 Chr. 9.1-12.  Solomon’s revenue & splendor. 1 Ki. 10.14-29; 2 Chr. 9.13-28.

1 Ki. 11: Solomon has 700 wives, 300 concubines.  He loved many strange women of other nations who turn his heart from God.  He goes after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and Milcom the abomination of the Ammornites, built a high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, and for Molech, etc. 1 Ki. 11.1-8.  Jehovah is angry & chastens him. 1 Ki. 11.9-25.  Jeroboam lifts up his hand against Solomon—God lets him know that He is going to give him 10 tribes to rule over and will leave one tribe with David; Solomon seeks to kill Jeroboam who flees into Egypt. 1 Ki. 11.116-40.  Solomon dies. 43.

The death of Solomon. 1 Ki.11.41-43; 2 Chr. 9.29-31.

Rehoboam (bad king who reigned 17 yrs. over Judah, 2 tribes). 1 Ki. 12.1; 14.21-31; 2 Chron. 10-13.  Ascension & folly of. 1 Ki. 12.1-15, 2 Chr. 10.1-11. Division of the kingdom between Rehoboam & Jeroboam. 1 Ki. 12.16-24; 2 Chr. 10.12-19, 11.1-4 (Jeroboam returns from Egypt & leads 10 tribes in rebellion. Rehoboam follows the advice of his young counselors and the kingdom is divided.).  There was war between Rehoboam & Jeroboam all their days.

N1 p 499 to II Chronicles 10.16 “And when all Israel saw that the king would not hearken unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? and we have none inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to your tents, O Israel: and now, David, see to thine own house. So all Israel went to their tents.” (“Israel,” the ten tribes other than Judah and Benjamin, often called “Israel” in distinction from Judah. The division of the kingdom marks an epoch of great importance in the history of the nation. Henceforth it is “a kingdom divided against itself.” Mt 12:25. The two kingdoms are to be reunited in the future kingdom. Isa 11:10-13; Jer 23:5-6; Eze 37:15-28. See “Kingdom” (O.T.), Cmt. on Ge 1:26 Cmt. on Zec 12:8. (N.T.), Lu 1:31. “Israel,” Ge 12:2-3; Ro 11:26.)

Rehoboam followed the LORD three years. 2 Chr. 11.17.  Then he forsook the law of the LORD. 2 Chr. 12.1; 1 Ki. 14.21-24.  As a result, Egypt came up against Jerusalem, Rehoboam & the princes humbled themselves so that the LORD did not destroy them altogether but placed them servants of the king of Egypt. 2 Chr. 12.2-12; 1 Ki. 14.25-28.

Jeroboam (bad king who reigned 22 yrs.). 1 Ki. 12-14.20. 2 Chr. 10.12-19; 11.14-17; 12.15; 13.3-20.  Jeroboam’s idolatry. 1 Ki. 12.25-30.  Jeroboam rejects the worship of Jehovah, institutes idolatry. 2 Chr. 11.14-17. Jeroboam makes two calves of gold for the people to worship (so they won’t go to Jerusalem t sacrifice), puts one in Bethel and one in Dan; made a house of high places, made priests of the lowest of people who were not Levites; ordained a feast and offered upon the altar; sacrifices unto the calves he had made; placed in Bethel the priests of the high places he had made. 1 Ki. 12.25-33.  A man of God comes and prophecies against the false altar; Jeroboam laid hold on him; Jeroboam’s hand dried up; the altar was rent; Jeroboam asks the man of God to pray his hand to be restored and so it was; disobedience & death of the man of God. 1 Ki. 13.1-32.  Jeroboam persists in evil—made again of the lowest of the people priests of the high places: whosoever would, he consecrated him, and he became one of the priests of the high places.. 1 Ki. 13.33-34; 2 Chr. 11.15.

Ahijah the prophet prophesied bad things for Jeroboam which came to pass. 1 Ki. 14.4-8. God says to Jeroboam, through the man of God: “* * * [Because thou] hast done evil above all that were before thee: for thou hast gone and made thee other gods, and molten images, to provoke me to anger, and hast cast me behind thy back: Therefore, behold, I will bring evil upon the house of Jeroboam, and will cut off from Jeroboam him that pisseth against the wall, and him that is shut up and left in Israel, and will take away the remnant of the house of Jeroboam, as a man taketh away dung, till it be all gone. * * *.” 1 Ki. 14.9-16.  Jeroboam dies. 19-20.

Judah’s apostasy under Rehoboam is given in 1 Ki. 14.21-30; 2 Chr. 12.1.  They built high places, images, groves, on every high hill & under every green tree and sodomites were in the land . . . .”  Sodomites did according to all the abominations of the nations which the LORD cast out before the children of Israel.  1 Ki. 14.24. Egypt comes up and takes away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king’s house; took all; tooo away all the shields of gold which Solomon had made. 1 Ki. 14.25-8; 2 Chr. 12.2-12. Rehoboam dies. 1 Ki.14.31; 2 Chr. 12.13-16.

The  method used in 1 & 2 Ki. is to record some history about Israel then some about Judah. 1 Ki., MeGee, 77.  See p. 212 of 1 Ki., McGee to see Chronological table of the kings of the divided kingdom.

This period contains many lessons for us & our government.  1 Ki. McGee, 78.

The northern kingdom will go into captivity in Assyria, southern kingdom into Babylon.  In the northern kingdom, all kings were bad (19 in all).  In the southern kingdom, only 8 of 20 weregood.  Kings & Chronicles cover  the same ground.  Kings gives man’s viewpoint, Chronicles, Gods.  Id. at 79, 84.

The three reasons God permitted Israel to go into captivity. See also 2 Ki. 17.7-: They insisted on worshiping other Gods.):

1)     Disobeyed God: 2 Ki. 17.13.

2)     Doubted God: 2 Ki. 17.14; 2 Chr. 36.15, 16.

3)     Defied God: 2 Ki. 17.15.

2 Chr. Continues the history of 1 Chr.  It falls into 18 divisions, by reigns, from Solomon to the captivities; records the division of the kingdom of David under Jeroboam and Rehoboam, and is marked by an ever growing apostasy, broken temporarily by reformations under Asa, 14.-16., Jehoshaphat, 1;7.1-19; Joash, 24.; Hezekiah 29.-32.; and Josiah, 34., 35.  But the religious state of the people, even at the best is described in Isaiah 1.-5.  The events in 2 Chr. cover 427 yrs.

SEE APPENDIX A FOR HISTORY OF THE KINGS AFTER JEROBOAM & REHOBOAM.

Christians have been persecuted from the beginning. At first the persecution was by the Jewish religious leaders. Paul himself, before conversion was actively involved in that persecution. He was seized by the Jews during his last visit to Jerusalem. They would have killed him, but as they were beating him, the chief captain of the Romans took soldiers and centurions, intervened, and held him. At that time Paul was allowed to speak to the people. He said,

“”[1]


[1]


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